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Friday, October 23, 2015

Comparative method In linguistics

Comparative method In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages, as opposed to the method of internal reconstruction, which analyzes the internal development of a single language over time.-3 Ordinarily both methods are used together to reconstruct prehistoric phases of languages, to fill in gaps in the historical record of a language, to discover the development of phonological, morphological, and other linguistic systems, and to confirm or refute hypothesized relationships between languages. The comparative method was developed over the 19th century. Key contributions were made by the Danish scholars Rasmus Rask and Karl Verner and the German scholar Jacob Grimm. The first linguist to offer reconstructed forms from a proto-language was August Schleicher, in his Compendium der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, originally published in 1861. -4 .. Subjectivity of the reconstruction The reconstruction of unknown proto-languages is inherently subjective. In the Proto-Algonquian example above, the choice of *m as the parentphoneme is only likely, not certain. It is conceivable that a Proto-Algonquian language with *b in those positions split into two branches, one which preserved *b and one which changed it to *m instead; and while the first branch only developed into Arapaho, the second spread out wider and developed into all the other Algonquian tribes. It is also possible that the nearest common ancestor of the Algonquian languages used some other sound instead, such as *p, which eventually mutated to *b in one branch and to *m in the other. Since reconstruction involves many of these choices, some linguists prefer to view the reconstructed features as abstract representations of sound correspondences, rather than as objects with a historical time and place. The existence of proto-languages and the validity of the comparative method is verifiable in cases where the reconstruction can be matched to a known language, which may only be known as a shadow in the loanwords of another language. For example Baltic-Finnic languages such as Finnish have borrowed many words from an early stage of Germanic, and the shape of the loans matches the forms that have been reconstructed for Proto-Germanic. Finnish kuningas 'king' and kaunis 'beautiful' match the Germanic reconstructions *kuningaz and *skauniz(>German König 'king', schön 'beautiful'). - 1
. They will say that Macedonia originated from makednos meant -Tall,Long Higlander Let see: μακεδνος,ή,όν,=μηκεδανός,μακρός,tall,αϊγειρος, Od. 7.I06; έλάται Nic.Th.472;νάπαι Lyc.I273….1 As we see here, there is no highlander meaning explanations. They compare with αϊγειρος -2 and έλάται
Lets compare Greek’s given meaning with some of Mediterranean languages:
Arabic :Tall-Tawil,Long-Tawil,Highlander-Reefiy;
 Catalan:Tall-Alt;Long-llarg;Highlanders-gent de la muntanya;