Friday, October 16, 2015

Status as Macedonians for Jews

The first Ptolemy added considerably to the Jewish population of Alexandria. His expeditions to Palestine and capture of Jerusalem placed in his hands a large number of Jewish and Samaritan captives, and these were conveyed to Alexandria, where many of them acquired civic rights. The report of the King's liberality towards his captives, and of their prosperity in Egypt, attracted other Palestinians to Alexandria, and many came thither as voluntary settlers.
Joseph.   ant  xii . 1.1  ho de Ptolemaios pollous aichmalotous labon apo te tes oreines Ioudaias kai ton peri Ierosoluma topon kai tes Samareitidos kai ton en Garizein, katokisen hapantas eis Aigupton agagon; epegnokos de tous apo ton Ierosolumon peri ten ton horkon phulaken kai tas pisteis bebaiotatous huparchontas. pollous auton tois Makedosin en Alexandreia poiesas isopolitas; ouk oligoi de oude ton allon Ioudaion eis ten Aigupton paregignonto, tes te aretes ton topon autous kai tes tou Ptolemaiou philotimias prokaloumenes....1

 Jos  Ant  XII , 1:1g-j]
And when Ptolemy had taken many captives both from the mountainous parts
of Judea and the places about Jerusalem and Samaria and Mount Gerizim, he
led them all into Egypt and settled them there. And since he knew that the
people of Jerusalem were most faithful in keeping their oaths and
covenants, he distributed many of them among garrisons. At Alexandria he
gave them equal privileges as citizens with the Macedonians themselves. He
also required them to take oath that they would be faithful to his
descendants. And not a few other Jews went into Egypt of their own accord,
attracted both by the goodness of the soil and Ptolemy's generosity.
However, there were disorders between their descendants and the Samaritans
because of their resolve to preserve that manner of life which was
transmitted to them by their forefathers. They accordingly contended with
each other; those from Jerusalem said that their temple was holy and they
resolved to send their sacrifices there, but the Samaritans were
determined that they should be sent to Mount Gerizim....2

Я не большой специалист
 по истории еврейского народа, но ЕМНИП в Александрии при Птолемеях евреи имели статус "македонцев", т.е. выше как бы некуда
Вообще-то положению евреев в эллинистических государствах посвящена обильная литература. Те, кто не хочет себя утруждать чтением не по-русски, могут взять хотя бы "Эллинистическую цивилизацию" В.В. Тарна (М., 1949), найти главу VI ("Эллинизм и евреи") и конкретно стр. 199-203. Пассаж из Флавия об уравнивании в правах (Jos. Ant. XII.1.1) относился к эллинизированной элите, согласившейся принять египетское подданство и присягнувшей на верность Птолемею I. Еврейские землячества, где народ желал исповедовать свою веру и жить по своим законам, преобразовывались в политевмы - тамошние жители имели широкую автономию, но не считались равными македонянам.

Там же можно прочесть и о том, чем евреям было разрешено заниматься. Желающие вручить им ключи от Пелузия и зачислить в птолемеевскую гвардию узнают много нового и интересного.


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